Two Good Ideas For all Teachers
to Improve Instruction

Photo of Dr. David Morris Prep School



If you would like to add to this dictionary on DIGITAL INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN e-mail me your contribution. 

A course or website dictionary is a helpful instructional tool for students. The vast majority of textbooks have outdated terms and definitions. Words come up in and out of class that contribute to the learning environment. It is also an important concept that definitions of terms once defined within a context hold within that environment. So much conflict and learning pain occurs when terms used are not defined to the students.

In a graduate class I had a quiz that asked students to identify the impact of geography on marketing. One student's answer was so difficult for me to understand  that I took time to explaining the concept again. After class I asked him to stay to see why this answer.

After ten minuets of trying to explain the concept of geography which he said was his undergraduate major I final figured out that he thought I was saying geology. This happens hundreds of times each class. How can a student answer any question when they do not hear or understand the terms. This is a huge educational problem that must be addressed. A class or site dictionary will help several students improver their performance. I cannot tell you how much is written on websites that I am unable to define or understand.

I have a dictionary on my three web sites just for this purpose. The following is the beginning of a DIGITAL INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Dictionary. There are many terms that I have left out because I question their value. Please make a suggestion.

Content I


An authority designated to clean and edit journals and texts of unwanted or competing stories and symbols.

ADDIE Model: Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement, Evaluate Produced, developed and applied by the US Army as a template for all instruction.

Affective: Emotion

Alpha Leader: A single person designated to guide fellow story holders.  Theory W.

Alpha Story: A creation story from which all contributing stories must be derived. When the alpha story is changed then all contributing stories follow.

Analyze ADDIE Model: Gather information on self, competition, and others from which it is believed a more informed decision may be made. Analysis leads to Design.

Allegory: A story where the real meaning is represented behind what is told.

ARCS: Attention, Relevance, Confidence, Satisfaction developed by John M. Keller as a common motivation model for the US Army.

Assessment: A method developed to determine how much transfer of KSA have been attained.

Asymmetric Learning: To learn and expand from a minimal beginning of KSA.

ARCS Motivation Model. Must gain and regain attention to begin to motivate anyone. Change, surprise

Attitudes: Feelings toward something. Positive, Negative, Neutral.


: The theory that all actions can be reduced to and explained through observable behavior.

Binary: one and zero


Cause and Effect: When something happens it is for a identifiable reason. (Laugh Track)

Cognitive: Thoughts.

Common Law: Law developed in England where truth is built on the cases that others have judged before.

Competency: A measure of acceptable performance.

Confidence: ARCS Motivation, Confidence in self and person attempting to motivate.

Concept: An outcome or idea derived by combining other thoughts or understandings.

Consumer Society: A story where individual and collective consumption of mass produced products. Differentiation and obsolesce is created and has little permanent value. Consumption is increased to the determent of all participants.

Consumption: All human consumption is controlled and manipulated to enhance the power of the power elite.

Content Specialist: Someone that focuses on one academic discipline and sub discipline.

Context: Actions dependent upon particular or general understanding.

: A granted monopoly by government.

Core Values: Values that are without compromise by story holders.

Cosmogony: I have to look up. Maybe you can help me with this?

Cosmology: A world view or story that drives and explains the origin of a people.

Cost Benefit: The cost in time, resources, and money in relationship to the benefits received.

Creation Myths: How the different stories of universe came into being.

Creativity in USA: Believed that new insights and a break through come from doing things in different ways.

Creativity Outside of USA: Believed that new insights and a break through come from doing things the same exact way as it was done in the past.

Criterion Based Testing: Testing to assure that a person has performed to a standard. Take the test until you attain the criterion.

Cross Functional: Combining functions to attain a purpose.

CSD: Cosmogony, Storytelling, and Direction

Culture: The accumulation of a society's stories.

Curriculum: A group of courses determent to comprise a body of knowledge, skills, and attitudes.

Cyber Geography: New area of geography that identifies and organizes stories about cyber space. I cannot tell you too much more because I do not know.


atabase: Information on a computer.

Develop ADDIE Model: Test on a limited bases. Better to test than to expend all the resources that would be required to implement.

Dictionary: A means of changing and eliminating words to transform or modify a story. Linear marketing dictionaries are the reason for this dictionary. I will ask the AMA to include theses definitions next to their terms.

Deliver System: Different methods of presenting the same content.

Design ADDIE Model: Another word for plan. It is a better word than plan because it can be applied to a broad range of actions.

Direct Transfer: What is learned is exactly what has to be done.

Direction: Goals are too precise and I prefer the concept of direction. This allows for much more flexibility of movement. Goals confine actions to a narrow set of actions.

Distance: Distance is a factor in an outcomes. There are all types of forms of distance.

Distribution: Moving resources and products that support the capacity to support a story.

Downsize: Making smaller.


Editing: A means of changing meaning.

Education: Marketing of the story that assures that the power elite survive and prosper.

6+ or -3 I's:
invisible, individual, imbedded, interconnected, instructional, imbalanced, indigenous, intention and involved

E-learning: Learning electronically.

Emotion: Actions derived from human stories.

End of Time:  Idea of when and how the world will end and learning.

Evaluate ADDIE Model: What happened? Two forms of evaluation formative and summative.


Factual But Not Truthful: A story that identifies the concept that only a small amount of information is shared in marketing. If all information was shared the purchase would not be made by the customer.

Fairytales: A story believed to have never happened.

Feedback: A means of receiving information in relation to a standard.

FFP:  Form, Force, and Power DM

Folktale: Story linked to all cultures.

Force: Process, method, methodology, scientific method, system, systematic.

Form: What is known, unknown, and not knowable to a story holder.

Formative: Evaluating all the time.

Founding Story: The story imprinted on the organization by the founder of the organization.

Fundamental Research: Research with the purpose of identifying new areas of learning and exploration.


General Transfer: Knowledge, skills and attitudes that are applied to many forms of content and specializations. For example math and writing.

Supports origin and political stories.

Goals: Ends, Outcome


Hero: The hero is the person that sacrifices themselves for the benefit of the larger group.  In particular women and children. In Greece the mythic hero was viewed as being very physically large.  This may be a reason why larger people are more revered. 

High Context Instruction: Meaning is found in the individual's relationship to the instruction.


IBM Rational Unified  Process: A software development process.

IDD&E: Instructional Design Development and Evaluation

Imbalance: Out of balance. Idea from Aikido.

Imbedded Instruction: Instruction that is separated from the story is a deception to fool customers into believing that it is separated from the story. 

Implement ADDIE Model: Do it. Implementation must be thought through.

Input: From my work work in instructional design input is the content both known and unknown that is applied or not applied.

Input, Process, Output: Systems approach.

In balance: Equilibrium.

Indigenous Instruction: Stories are held to separate and maintain power.

Individualized Instruction: All human understanding is individualized. We may collectively like or dislike but the reasons are far different.

Information Warfare Instruction: The application of all forms of data and data delivered around the concept of warfare. I do not know if they have effectively applied cultural poetry forms and stories to warfare.

Instructional Design: A systematic approach to instruction.

Instructional Design Certification: Some universities give certificates in ID.

Instructional Design Degrees: I know of masters and doctor's degrees.

Instructional Design Jobs: Military, Education, Universities, Business, Marketing

Instructional Design Software: If this is what I think it is it is useless.

Instructional Marketing: Stories are told to reinforce and teach the story held by power.

Instructional Systems: Same as Instructional Design.

Instructional Technology: The relationship between people and machines to improve learning.

Intangible Resources Marketing:
Resources that are not concrete.

Interconnected Instruction: Instruction actions are expanded and interconnected applying 6+ or -3.

Internet: World wide web.

Invisible Instruction: Not identified by customers.


Job Aid: A form of instruction that happens when a person needs that information. One example is instructions on a copy machine how to operate. Another, how do do you paper or report.


K - 12: Kindergarten through high school.

Kairos: From the Greek meaning the right time and opportune moment. An opening for success. Wikipedia The first time I saw this word was in June 2006. I wonder why?

Kindred: Irish kinship group.

Kinship Group: Family group derived from mother or father's linage. Determines obligations and actions to be taken by members.

Knowledge: Data, information, stories.

Known Instruction: What is individually and collectively believed by story holders.

KSA: Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes.


Law Instruction: Created to punish and support different story holders.

Learning Curve: Extra time and cost it takes to learn something new or different.

Learning Style: The concept that individuals have preferred methods of how to learn.

Learning to Learn: Until we learn how to learn we are only temporarily trained. Great stories teach us to deal with the unknown.

Learning Theories: Different concepts of how people learn.

Legend: Story that may or may not be true for story holders.

Life Cycle: Based on a biological model. Born, grow, and die.

Limbic Brain: Fight or flight. Linked to marketing decisions that are derived from these primal fears.

Local Myth: A story of how a local group came into being.

Logic: A story that professes that a particular form of thinking leads to reasoned decisions. 

Low Context Instruction: Meaning is directly found in the instruction.


Maps: Reinforces, tells, creates, and supports stories.

M&S: Marketing and Storytelling.

Marketing Storytelling: A marketing storytelling approach must be invisible, individualized, imbedded, interconnected, and indigenous.

Marketing Wars: The wars between different stories for dominance.

Market Power: Blocking resource allocation to competing stories and story holders.

Mass Education:
Very large number of people receiving the same learning materials.

Mass Target Instruction: Everyone is a potential learner.

Mass Training: What the military does.

Mastery: Taking the time to learn to a predetermined level.

Matrilineal: The linage of the children is through the mothers line and family. Naming of children through mother.

Medium is Not the Message: Only the story is the message. The medium can change the message by applying constraints to a story.

Metaphysics: Another world. Also used to describe religion.

Middle Class: Story holders included in the resource allocations of the social elite as a buffer.

Military: Protects stories with violence and threat of force.

A tool of the social elite to support a story for the middle class that paper is a medium of exchange. 

Monolinear: A single form of a story applied to the organization of marketing.

Monopoly: The absolute authority of a form of instruction.

Motivation: Influencing self or others. ARCS

Multiple Target Instruction: More than one target.

Music: A form of communication created by different story holders.

Myth: Guide posts to identify and participate in the changes in the sages of life.


Names: All are symbols of a connection with a story.

Nature: A story that includes all life within their symbols .

Needs Assessment: The concept that it is best to do an assessment before coming to a conclusion of what should be done.

Neuro Science: Study of the brain to determine human behavior.

Newspaper: A form of communication.

Nonlinear: Each action opens the infinite possibility of what may happen next.

Nonlinear Transfer Training: The application of what is learned in marketing to actions that do not exist or have been applied.

Norm Reference Testing: Testing to identify differences in those taking the test.


Objective ABCD: (A) Audience: Who?

Objective ABCD: (B) Behavior: What do you want to accomplish?

Objective ABCD: (C) Condition: Restrictions?

Objective ABCD: (D) Degree: To what extent and period of time?

Objectives: Means (Instructional Design Model ABCD) I have to look up the reference.

Opening and Closing: All life is perceived as the continual opening and closings to new forms. Mythic and religious symbols represent this concept. Birth to death are perceived as continuous opening and closings. Each leading us closer to the Devine.

Open Source: Software that is available to all for free.

R, 'S DO BHEATHA ABHAILE: Ask me and I will share with you.

Origin Myth: A story of how the world and universe were created.

Output: Outcome.


Patrilineal: Linage of the children is through the father's line. Naming of children through father.

Patrilineal and Matrilineal: Society with both mother and father's lineage are combined. Naming of children changes from mother to father with birth order.

Pedagogy: Study of learning.

Personal Selling: Person to person with some form of transfer.

Phases of Life: Death, Born, young, adult, death.

Philosophy: Way to live our lives. Another term for stories.

Physical Geography: The physical resources of the world.

Physical Resources: Land, buildings, equipment.

Poems: Nonlinear form of communication.
When the enemy advances, withdraw; when he stops, harass; when he tires, strike; when he retreats, pursue. Mao Tse-Tung

Poetry: A form of story interaction with limitless interpretations

Polylinear: Competing story forms applied in marketing.

Power: Timing and distance.

Process: A sequence of actions and non actions.

Project Management: A project that is separated from regular management controls. Usually applying a set of management tools. unique to project management.

Propaganda: The willful manipulation or destruction of a stories symbols to maintain the power of the power elite.

Psychomotor: Physical movement.

Public Relations: The hiring of a firm to organize and change a story to transfer power away from others. An advanced form of human manipulation.

Psychopath: A psychopath is a person that is not encumbered by any moral or ethical value system derived from a story and its symbols. They are driven to project their will on all others. They will do and say anything without the slightest sense of remorse. The psychopath is capable of driving a business out and causing harm to millions of people while believing that they have not done anything wrong.

Universities are now bring in psychopaths as Presidents because they are capable of doing anything to anyone. The psychopath has several flaws that make this a dangerous path for any university. The psychopath cannot stop destroying everyone and everything around them. They have no capacity for compromise and will never back down. They are also brilliant at separating themselves from any actions that would cause them the slightest discomfort. Some one is always blamed and takes the fall.

Followers of psychopaths are never allowed to survive. The psychopath is brilliant at assessing the weaknesses of others and has a continual flow of individuals that will do their bidding. A psychopath can rarely be stopped.



Rational: A concept held by all story holders that their story is superior because it makes sense.

Reason: The story that decisions can be made devoid of emotion.

Relevance: How important is an action or inaction to an individual story holder.

Religion: Belief in a story and symbols that includes a higher authority or authorities.

A secular method for finding answers to support their story.


Satisfaction: Internal and external.

Secular:  A story that with this world without higher beings.

Self-Paced Learning: Learn at your own rate.

Science: A story derived from religion and myth that excludes the concept of gods or God.

Single Target Instruction: One group of potential customers.

Skills: Something that people that are devotees of a story will pay you to do.

6+ or -3: Concept that all actions can be divided into between 3 and nine. 

Social Class: Differentiation of groups of people based on a human criteria.

Social Elite: Insulated from the consequences of their story on the masses.  

Social Responsibility: To stay within the confines of our story.

Socratic Method: Teaching by asking questions.

Heard and not heard. Sound that cannot be heard is extremely powerful. Can be very dangerous in the hands of an enemy.  Can change psychological stability.

Standardized Test: Everyone takes the same test and are scored in the same way.

Statistics: A secular method of determining probable outcomes. This does not assure any positive results or causation.

Story: Form of communication.

Story Elite: Those that maintain, reward, and reinforce the dominant story.

Storytelling: A concept that all participants in a story can come to their own conclusion and interpretation.

Story Themes: Love, fear, power, heroic, social status, health, education, secret knowledge, belonging.

Strategy: Ends, Goal, Goals

Street Teams: Individuals sent out in the public to influence the actions of others.

Structural Learning: The underlying way that learning takes place in a society.  Our society is one answer, training, and rote memory.

Summative: Assessed at a specific time that is determined by marketing.

Supernatural: Not a part of this world.

Support Staff: On of the three interchangeable roles of Theory W.

Symbol: Any representation linked and connected to a story.

Systems Approach: A concept that actions can be organized in in a way that will improve outcomes.


Targeting: The concept that there are specific groups of individuals that are more likely to purchase a product or service.

Means, Objectives

Terms: Economic agreement between a buyer and seller.

Testing: All testing is to assure knowledge and understanding of a story.

Textbook Dependent Advertising: When the extent and revenue generated by textbook advertising is revealed many presidents of universities heads will roll for their complicity.

Textbook Dependant Scholarly Journals: When scholarly journals allow textbook company advertising they may not want to challenge or criticize.

Textbook Dependant Student: Figured out it is just memorizing the textbook.

Textbook Dependant Professor: Afraid, lazy, uninformed about their fields, mostly afraid.

Textbook Dependant University: University bookstores are the golden goose at the students expense.

Textbook Dependant University Presidents: Significant revenue generator.

Theory: An idea that may be developed.

Theory W: The way of the warrior. DM

Theory of Identical Elements:  Educational theory that learning should be limited specifically what is required for the job. As new knowledge is required the person is given that specific information.  Dominant in USA since 1900s. Dewey.

Theory of Mental Discipline: The concept that a student should suffer and work very hard to learn. The specific areas that are learned are not relevant but rather the hard work transfers to life. Dominant outside the USA for many centuries.

Thought Experiments: Carry on an experiment only in your mind.

Thought Police: The organized search in a society for people that have negative thoughts about the dominate story. The people with negative thoughts have not verbalized their dissatisfaction. Once identified these individuals and groups can face job loss, imprisonment, and death.  

Timing: Time is a factor in an outcome. There are all different forms of timing.

Trademarks: Form of governmental granted monopoly.

Training: Separating wisdom into infinite parts without any thought or consideration of any other part. Slavery of the mind. Monolinear.

Transfer: Movement from one place to another not usually identified.

Transfer Learning: The application of what is learned in marketing to the job.

Translation: Changing a story to adjust it to other story holders

Transaction: The exchange between and among story holders without different forms of violence.

Tribal Marketing: Applying a tribal model to marketing DM

Trusted Follower: One of the three interchangeable roles of Theory W. DM

Truth: Believed to be known by God or other human sources. Transferred through stories.


Universe: A story that creates a realm of existence.

Universal: Applies to all.


Validity: Is it supposedly true?

Viral Internet Campaign: The movement of information around the internet where individuals contact others.


War: To decrease the population of men to women so that the remaining men have greater access to the rewards of the story.

Combining, simplifying, and applying from all areas of inquiry. Nonlinear.

Working Class: Story holders and outsiders that are used to create wealth for the social elite receiving minimal returns.




"The hardest place to be a strategist is at home." Given to DM by a banker friend in Russia


Instructional Triads


Instruction may be designed looking for one, two, three or more answers to an inquiry. Tricircles or triads are the world of three. The world of three is from the Celtic tradition and philosophy.

The triadic system of thought creates greater promise for the mind because each concept begins with three possibilities.

Linear singular American instruction strives for one answer that is then supported by several supporting propositions. A triad is different in that three counter examples may be presented to the reader. From my world view this creates a higher level of learning in that the learner is exposed to different points of view. Try a few.

Content II


Government and Marketing
Government Consumption

Government Support of Consumption


Marketing and Truth

Marketing Identified
Marketing Made Easy

Marketing Made Real

Marketing Research
Marketing Success

New Product Development

Selling Product
Social Status

Three Ways to Predict in Marketing

Transportation and Marketing
Ways to Attain Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes

Ways to See the Future

"It is from stories that understanding comes down to one, two, or three final outcomes. Tricircles are the world of three. We live in a world of one in the USA. Asia a world of two. The Celtic world is three." DM

(Back to Top)

Take advantage of advantages; Advantages not taken are not advantages; Advantages are individualized.


There are only 6 + or - 3 customers in any successful business; There are infinite numbers of customers; Customers are targeted

Government and Marketing

Government controls consumption; government protects consumption; Government control changes consumption.

"Tricircle or triad is a Celtic/Irish nonlinear system of explanation applying three. This system of thought creates greater possibilities of the mind because each concept begins with three possibilities." DM

Government Consumption

Government does not want to change consumption patterns; Government funds military consumption; Military funds business consumption.

Government Support of Consumption
(Back to Top)

Government holidays with pay; Private holidays with pay; Government and private holidays without pay.


History is changed to enhance current marketing; history always to reinforce current power; history of different times and places can inform.


Marketing is the ability to control consumption; Unsuccessful marketing is a failed attempt to control consumption; Marketing is often related to success when there is no identifiable relationship.

Marketing and Truth
(Back to Top)

Marketing never tells the entire truth; Truth is selected for each customer; Same truth for all customers.

Marketing Identified

Marketing identified will fail; Invisible marketing can succeed; Invisible marketing to one group may influence another.

"The fight within stories for one and two answers are dominant Western and Eastern philosophies. The Celtic Welch concept of three tells a far different tale and reveals totally different look at life." DM

Marketing Made Easy

No one knows what will work in marketing; No one knows why anything will work in marketing; No one knows how anything will work in marketing.

Marketing Made Real
(Back to Top)

No one knows until an action is taken in marketing the outcome; All marketing comes down to one person; Military strategy and marketing strategy are the same. DM 2007

Marketing Research

Marketing research is an attempt to predict the future; Limits and hinders success; Always comes down to a human decision.

Marketing Success

No company succeeds in marketing in the way that they have identified; Identified success in marketing is a deception; Business success that is stated in marketing is a deception.

New Product Development
(Back to Top)

Create a totally new product; minor change in existing product; Significant change is existing product.


New products driven by military; Military gives or shares with private sector; Cost of research and production absorbed by military.

Selling Product

Sell more to the same people; Sell to different people; Sell the same thing to the same people but they think it is something different. Example valentine and Christmas candy.

Social Status

Strive for a particular identified social status position; Strive to rise in social status to the social elite; Pretend to move down in social status as an attempt to move up.

Three Ways to Predict in Marketing
(Back to Top)

Predict future consumption and move to meet that consumption; Happens by accident; Create consumption.

Transportation and Marketing

Government supports transportation to build consumption; Industry supports transportation; Individuals support transportation

Ways to Attain Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes

Ask someone that knows; Look it up; Figure it out yourself

Ways to See the Future
(Back to Top)

Try to predict the future; Accident; Live in the present


copyright 1996 - 2008

"Power protects and promotes their own form of education." DM